Sometimes an article is hard to write because its content lies close to the heart. Such was the case with this writer, reporting on Dr. Catherine Birndorf’s and Pamela Weinberg’s terrific talk about transitions.
Transitions. The word belies a process that can leave one feeling halfway to nowhere. A conversation on confidently preparing for transitions took place on a warm day in early May with Catherine Birndorf and Pamela Weinberg, speaking on behalf of Parents in Action at the School Relations Lunch. The takeaway? Lean in to a change of direction, a change of heart or a change of mind, own it, and prepare for it -preparation leads to confidence and success.
“Karen Finerman’s Strategies for Life” by Meg Sheridan
Karen Finerman spoke to the sell-out audience at NYC-Parents in Action’s annual Mother’s Day Benefit held on May 13,2014, on “How to get out of your own way and be the woman you are meant to be.” She is the CEO of Metropolitan Capital Advisors, a panelist on CNBC’s “Fast Money”, and mother of four – two sets of twins.
Ms. Finerman began by explaining that her mother raised her as a Calvinist. That is, her mother bought Karen and her three sisters Calvin Klein clothes. But once they graduated from college, her daughters had to buy Calvin themselves. “I can’t tell you how many people I meet who think Calvinism is something else entirely,” said Finerman, “but the philosophy worked for us.” Karen set out with a goal to be independent, make money, and be a success on Wall Street.
Sex, drugs and social media. These are concerns of today’s parents, and they’re not so different from those of generations past. On February 10 before a packed house at The Trinity School, a panel of sixteen New York City independent school ninth- through twelfth-graders shed light on just what’s going on with teens today. Lucy Martin Gianino, who has moderated twenty-six of Parents in Action’s twenty-eight Teen Scene discussions, noted that the teens on her first panels are now old enough to be parents in the audience.
What’s distressing many parents about kids and sex today is that it seems so casual. The panelists did not disabuse us of that impression, saying that committed relationships are rare in high school. One panelist could think of only “three couples in [her] whole upper school” that were committed and another cited only five or six. Much of the rest of high school romantic life consists of “hooking up,” but parents shouldn’t assume hooking up always goes as far as intercourse.
On a Tuesday night in October, in an auditorium filled to capacity at the Nightingale-Bamford School, parents viewed “Out of Reach,” a documentary film about prescription drug use among adolescents. Cyrus Stowe, a 17 year-old high school student and filmmaker from Dallas, Texas, produced the 22-minute feature in collaboration with director Tucker Capps (of A&E’s Intervention) and Partnership for Drug Free Kids Medicine Abuse Project.
“When you pictured having a family, what did that look like? Who was your child going to be to you, and for you?” So began the interactive presentation by Andrea Spiritos, a psychotherapist specializing in young adulthood and parenting. Her workshop, “Parenting with an Open Heart” on October 23rd, was attended by PIA school reps, facilitators and their guests. The workshop focused on the ways parents can communicate openly and honestly with their children, listen without judgment and allow their children to develop into adults who are comfortable in their own skin.
Parents have a lot more power than they may realize to prevent teens from sliding into substance abuse. That was the strong message a sell-out crowd at the Harmonie Club heard on the evening of November 12, when Joseph A. Califano, Jr., headlined a panel discussion on “How to Raise a Drug Free Kid: The Straight Dope for Parents,” which is also the title of Califano’s recently updated book.
Califano, who served as United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare during the Carter administration, is a founder of the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA), which co-sponsored the event with Parents in Action. Serving on the panel with Califano were Drs. Joe Woolston and Claudia Califano, both of the Yale Child Study Center, and Dr. Herbert Kleber, director of the Division of Substance Abuse at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Dr. Sam Ball, the newly elected president of CASA and a professor of psychiatry at Yale, moderated the discussion.
Robin Berman, MD, Wows Audience with Wit and Wisdom – Fall Benefit 2014
By Melanie Wells
“Hate Me Now, Thank Me Later” - Dr. Robin Berman’s UK book title - succinctly captures the message and tone of her very entertaining presentation to a delighted audience at the NYC-Parents in Action Fall Benefit on November 13.
Deceptively comedic, Dr. Berman’s energetic style (and the frequent laughs it drew) actually delivered substantive data and some profound food for thought on what goes into successfully guiding children to confident maturity. In one of her many lively and accessible axioms, Dr. Berman advised parents: “Be an emotional grown-up. You don’t want your children to be so aware of your needs that they have to swallow their own.”
Dr. Berman’s message begins with the parent, not the child. She stressed again and again that parents must sit in the driver’s seat. Quoting children (whose voices are not always included with expert advice) Dr. Berman offered excerpts of interviews with kids who turned out to be strong advocates for her message. According to one: “They [parents] say don’t yell but they yell, they say don’t lie and they lie. It’s not kids who have to change, it’s the parents.” Kids need a parent firmly in charge, says Berman, but that’s not the whole story.
Some of the almost 200 fathers who came to the auditorium of the Hewitt School on the second Monday of March did so because their wives told them to come, others came of their own volition. Everyone in the standing room only crowd who attended this year’s NYC - Parents in Action’s signature Fathers Only event, stayed to see excerpts of the Academy Award nominated film Boyhood and hear a panel discussion moderated by George Davison, Head of Grace Church School. The evening, hosted by PIA Board member Chris Theodoros, proved that indeed, Fathers Matter, the aptly titled book by author and panelist Paul Raeburn. Along with Dr. Jonathan Cohen, a child and adolescent psychologist at the National School Climate Center, and John Sloss a producer of Boyhood, the panel proved that fathers are among a child’s most valuable asset.
Foodfight.org Founder Offers a Brief Lesson in "Food Literacy"
By Melanie Wells
You care deeply about your child’s nutrition. You’ve read the rising – and frightening - statistics on the overweight/obesity/diabetes epidemic surging in America. You don’t want your child to join those statistics. So you read labels. You limit sugary treats. You search for a nutritional regimen to protect your child.
But is that enough? According to Deborah Lewison-Grant, Ph.D., founder of FoodFight.org, this fight is way bigger than saying no to an extra can of Coca Cola. It’s about redefining our relationship with food, and even more importantly, with Big Food.
At the April School PIA School Rep Luncheon, the audience got an eye-opening look at the forces underlying our current overweight/obesity/diabetes epidemic, and learned that guiding children on a path to healthful eating is not as simple as just counting calories.
Six weeks ago Faye de Muyshondt’s second child, Oliver, was born; six years ago she gave birth to socialsklz:-). Before Oliver came marriage and a baby daughter; with socialsklz:-) came books, a website, workshops, and a unique way of giving young people the social interaction and communication, or “life,” skills they may lack. On the second Monday of May, Ms. de Muyshondt spoke at Parents in Action’s annual Mother’s Day lunch. Social skills, dubbed by a CASEL study “the missing piece in American education,” are what de Muyshondt calls essential “skills to use every day” and the foundation for “every single thing we do.” She believes they build self- esteem and confidence, affect our life drastically and are vital to success in today’s fast paced, technological world.
Your Child and Online Safety: Communication Matters
By Melanie Wells
Virtually all parents – when they have doubts or agonize over solving a child-rearing problem – share a drive to reach the goal that trumps all others: to “keep my child safe.” The Internet has expanded the territory parents need to cover, and at the October 7th PIA Fall Seminar, attendees received insight and guidance on how best to do so, from Chauncey Parker, Special Policy Advisor in the Manhattan DA’s office; and Liz Repking, Founder of Cyber Safety and Consulting.
“Money Learning” - Start Early for Financial Health
By Melanie Wells
“We’d rather talk to our kids about sex than about money,” was the quip with which Dr. Melissa Donohue, Founder and Principal of Financial Nutrition, greeted her audience. As the chuckles died down, she reassured them that “what I love about financial education is that it’s so attainable,” likening it to learning to “take care of one’s health.”
Rather than avoid the topic, said Dr. Donohue, parents best serve kids if they initiate clear, direct conversations about money, and the earlier the better. “Money learning is behavior based as well as fact based,” she said, acknowledging the anxiety parents may feel about plunging into what is often – especially among the well-to-do – an emotionally loaded topic. In a presentation blending facts, emotional concerns and sensible advice, Dr. Donohue gave the parents a road map for educating their children financially – and effectively.
Few situations are as charged as the admissions process, and application mania, while a treatable condition, is a recognizable disorder that afflicts many high school students and their parents. Our preoccupation with elite schools, and how that squares with our definition of success, was at the heart of Frank Bruni’s talk to those attending NYC-Parents in Actions annual fall benefit lunch, earlier this month. “Where You Go is Not WhoYou’ll Be,” is the title of Bruni’s most recently published book, and his address to the crowd of mostly mothers argued his impassioned stance.
PIA’s signature event, Teen Scene XXX, celebrated its 30th birthday February 1st, reassuring the audience that their kids really are okay - despite the suggestive Roman numeral in the title. With PIA’s Lucy Martin Gianino moderating the articulate teen panel, parents, as always, heard candid talk from the 9th to 12th graders. The consistent message is, still, New York City independent school teens are a thoughtful and savvy bunch, capable of making good decisions, negotiating the shoals of adolescence and moving successfully to college and beyond.
Ron Lieber Talks About Values, Finance, Hard Questions and Choices
By John Lloyd
Ron is the “Your Money” columnist for the New York Times and the author of The Opposite of Spoiled: Raising Kids Who Are Grounded, Generous, and Smart About Money. Speaking at PIA’s annual Fathers Only Forum on March 1st at the Dalton School, he challenged the 150 fathers in attendance to engage their kids about finances as a way of teaching their values. The conversation that followed was lively, with topics ranging from how to handle allowance to how to talk about inheritance.
Creating a Consent Culture by Talking to Our Children
By Lori Gaon
How can we educate our children to have healthy relationships and not become one of these statistics? The key, Osherow explained, is teaching children about consent and communication. Consent concerns more than just sexual activity and therefore, may appropriately be taught to all children beginning at a young age.
Do you eat the fabulous artisanal chocolate bar one square at a time over the course of a week or do you eat it all at once? If you eat it all at once, indulging moderately is unimaginable, and Gretchen Rubin would label you an “abstainer” - it’s all or none - having something only makes you want it more. At this year’s PIA Mother’s Day lunch held Wednesday, May 11, Ms. Rubin talked about the differences between abstainers and moderators, Upholders, Questioners, Rebels and Obligers; all tendencies that have profound implications for making and breaking habits.
If you’re shying away from having “the talk” with your teen, perhaps you should reconsider. Today, social media is pervasive, and kids as young as seven may be exposed to pornography. With this sobering warning in mind, NYC-Parents in Action's Fall Seminar on October 26th addressed the timely topic of Teens, Sex and Consent. The five-member panel, moderated by Lucy Martin Gianino, answered questions, offered insight and gave guidance to parents navigating this complex and emotionally charged subject.
Justine Fonte, M.Ed, MPH and Director of Health & Wellness at The Dalton School, began the evening by explaining that as parents, the framework within which we were taught about consent has since changed. “The ‘No means no,’ that we grew up with is no longer effective,” she said. While we were taught to say “NO!” loud and clear, to not dress or dance a certain way and to not get drunk, today’s teens live in a world of nuance and mixed messages that have had significant impact on the issue of consent. The clear message from the panel was that young people need to understand that only enthusiastic consent means yes. Teens need to hear the word “Yes” from each other when engaging in sexual interaction, Fonte explained, and only a clear “yes means yes’’ can eliminate blurred lines and mixed messages. With the old “no means no,” it’s “easy to see how things get confusing, especially if there’s alcohol involved with the yes; or if one partner is silent; or says only ‘Um. . . okay.’” Kids need to understand that in most cases “all of those are ‘no.’”
Ilann Mazel, an attorney nationally recognized for championing children and people with disabilities and filing discrimination suits on their behalf, often deals with cases involving sexual assault. “Media messaging can be the root of the problem when dealing with teenage sexual consent cases,” he said. While cases don’t often involve violence at this age, many young people who have been accused of sexual misconduct don’t understand what they’ve done wrong. “Issues of consent are complicated and can be confusing at any age, but are especially so for a teenager,” he warned, agreeing with Fonte’s insistence on teens giving and receiving a firm “yes!” when consenting to sex.
When does this all begin? In answer to the moderator’s question, “When do these things start to happen for a teen?” Fonte answered that by age 10 or 11 kids start to explore their sexuality. Their natural attraction to others, due to hormones and their biology, is given far greater reach with access to a smart phone, which boosts the likelihood they will be exposed to sex by way of pornography at a very young age. Asked if the majority of our children are exposed to pornography, Emi Nakazato, a sexual-assault awareness and prevention educator, said that unfortunately, for many young people, in the absence of any other conversation about sex, porn may be their first avenue of sex education. “Pornography is powerful and the conflation of sex and violence can seem normalized, given the ease of access,” she said. “Many young men today watch so much porn that they often get desensitized.”
Rachel Henes continued the conversation. “Kids start absorbing messages about gender and sex from the day they are born,” she said. Henes, the director of Hallways, Freedom Institute’s evidence-based prevention and social-emotional wellness program serving the Independent School community in New York City, noted that all their lives, kids receive messages about sex and while sexual behaviors may not manifest until middle or high school, by the time they do, a kid’s perspective on sex is often one of sexual conquest or dominance. “These messages are in the world around us, in the air we breathe,” she said.
“We as parents need to be really clear about our expectations for our kids. Kids are confused because we’re confused,” said Henes. “Take homework for instance. We are clear in what we expect, but as adults we’re often not clear about consent and being respectful of the other person. . . making sure the other person is actively into the sexual activity. We need to look at sex as interacting with another human and care how they are doing.”
Empathy, Nakazato said, plays a key role in the sexual consent conversation. “Empathy can be taught,” she noted and is important because “when used it makes it difficult to dehumanize another person.” The lack of empathy, added Henes, “is rooted in the ideas about sexual conquest and dominance that our culture sends – so we need to address those with our kids in order to promote empathy, and that is something that parents can do.”
Nakazato delivered some humor to the somber audience, sharing a food analogy she has used as a way to initiate a sex positive conversation with her own teens. “Not every time you have sex is it going to be a five-star experience. Sometime it may just be like a snack, because you’re hungry. Food experiences can have a huge range, anywhere from a memorable Jean George experience to a simple granola bar. In extreme cases food can . . .make you sick or kill you from food poisoning. It could take a long time to experience a Jean George meal.” The same can be said of sex. You may have to eat “a lot of granola bars before you ever get to experience Jean George,” she said, her point being that sex can be experienced on a wide continuum, from exquisite to horrifying. Hence, the importance of teaching kids to communicate, listening to each other and making certain that they heard their sexual partner say “yes.”
Henes agreed that it’s never too early to offer positive messaging about consent. Speaking of her own “teachable moments” with her soon-to-be three-year-old son, she described using interactions with their cat as a tool to teach consent. “He has to notice what the cat wants,” she said. If her child wants to give the cat a hug and the cat reacts by pulling away, Henes has taught her son to respect that the cat doesn’t want a hug right now. If the cat stays put, her son can hug the cat.
Norms and social stereotypes that contribute to unhealthy ideas about masculinity affect both boys and girls. “The messaging is very limiting to boys,” said Fonte. “They often feel like they’re expected to have sex by a certain age, and when terms like, ‘you throw like a girl’ or ‘don’t be such a pussy’ are tossed around,” it makes them feel like they are supposed to be part of that culture. “Stereotypes don’t stop there,” said Henes. Teen boys tend to repeat back phrases they think describe what being a boy means (“Be aggressive;” “Never cry;” “Be awesome at sports;” “Have sex;” “Never show emotion”) or suffer being teased or mocked.
“The more that boys are tied into these ideas of traditional masculinity, the higher the likelihood they may perpetrate some of these [negative] behaviors or be silent about others who do,” added Henes. But rather than focusing on these messages, we often focus on girls’ behaviors by sending messages like “don’t drink, don’t wear certain clothing, don’t act certain ways.” These messages don’t promote consent – they promote victim blaming. We need to notice this, and instead, spend our time challenging unhealthy ideas that connect sex and dominance/conquest, and linking sex with kindness, compassion, and respect.
Parents of girls, Henes continued, need to have ongoing conversations with their daughters, to mitigate pressures that girls often feel. She suggested parents start by asking, “What do you think this ad is saying?” and provide supportive commentary, like “‘I think this sends a message that a girl’s worth is in her body and how she looks and I want to make sure that you know that I don’t feel that way. You’re so much more than that.’ Conversations like this chip away at the onslaught of media messaging.”
So as parenting experts have said time and time again, talking to our children early is a vital part of the job. Keeping lines of communication open is fundamental, especially when it comes to sex and consent. It’s never too early to initiate the talk.
Towards the middle of November, days after the surprising results of the presidential election, Perri Peltz and Dr. Carrie Wilkens talked about their new documentary Risky Drinking, to be aired this January on HBO. The film’s about alcohol use disorder and “was born of people asking, ‘I drink at night and I only drink red wine and I never drink on Sundays…am I OK?’’ Ms. Peltz said. “We started hearing that question so much, that’s what gave birth to this film.” The two, who spoke at the annual fall benefit lunch on behalf of Parents in Action, explained that alcohol use disorder is best described on a spectrum. In answer to the question, “Do I have a problem?” the film profiles four people along the alcohol use disorder spectrum.
Risky Drinking is co-produced by HBO, the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAA). Peltz is the mother of three boys and a well- known media presence in New York. She’s reported for NBC, ABC, CNN, has been an anchor on a number of networks and is a public health advocate. Carrie Wilkens, Ph.D., is one of the featured experts in the film. She’s the Co-Founder and Clinical Director of the Center for Motivation and Change in NYC and in the Berkshires, and is the co- author of two books about addiction, Beyond Addiction: How Science and Kindness Help People Change and The 20 Minute Guide: A Guide for Parents about How to Help their Child Change their Substance Use.
Two five- minute clips from the film were played, the first profiling a 26 year-old woman from Denver, Colorado, who binge drinks. The segment follows her, hour-by-hour, one night over Halloween weekend. Ms. Peltz introduced the segment by saying this young woman did not consider herself to have a drinking problem; the subject went on to describe why she drinks before going out. “Drinking definitely eases the dating world, the whole point of drinking is to turn off your brain for once and not think of anything. I didn’t drink at all this week knowing I was going to drink a ton this weekend.” The film follows her through the night as she consumes somewhere near sixteen drinks (the amount of alcohol in each shot or drink is hard to determine), including vodka, vodka jello shots, tequila, whisky and beer. Around 1:30 in the morning we see her sobbing while apologizing to a friend who brings her home.
The second clip follows a group of stay-at-home moms from Fayetteville, Arkansas who found each other through the blog, “momwhodrinksandcusses.” “We started doing Happy Hour every Thursday,” one said. “It’s like a therapy session. We get together and we drink wine.” For them drinking is bonding, and the pleasure the friends take in drinking and drinking with each other is evident. Some of the exchanges between the mothers in the film were greeted with recognizable laughter from the audience, most of who were also mothers. But the seductiveness of alcohol to ease the tedium, frustration and challenges of raising children, sometimes alone, is cause for concern. Ms. Peltz said the segment was originally intended to represent alcohol use disorder at the beginning of the spectrum but when one friend asks, “What do you do when one of your friends seems like they’re in trouble? How do you know when things have gone too far?” it’s clear the solace found in drinking can tip towards alcohol abuse. The troubled mother says, “I know without alcohol who I want to be, I want to be Oprah…I want to be amazing, I want to be a rock star. When I drink I’m not that awesome and I don’t remember. You think I’d stop.” Towards the end of the segment she says, “ Drinking impacts my relationship with my kids. I want to be able to moderate. I want to be able to function. I don’t feel like I’m doing a very good job at functioning right now, (but) I don’t think I want to be completely sober.” As described by Ms. Peltz, the remaining segments of the film feature stories about a 59-year-old man “well on his way to becoming a full blown alcoholic,” and an end stage alcoholic who has been in and out of detox thirteen times over the course of two years.
After the film clips the women talked about alcohol use and binge drinking, which has been normalized to some extent, but greatly affects decision-making and risk-taking behaviors. Ms. Peltz pointed out that men and women process alcohol in very different ways. “We can get drunker faster,” she said. “Women have more fat in their bodies while men have more water,” explained Dr. Wilkens. Because women also lack the stomach enzyme that helps the body process alcohol it becomes more concentrated in women’s bodies. Estrogen seems to play a role too; taken all together long term alcohol use poses greater risks to women’s health in general - their organs break down faster, leading to breast cancer and other diseases.
In response to a question from the audience Dr. Wilkens defined drinking level limits. For women, low risk drinking is “no more than three drinks on any one occasion during a week for a total of seven drinks. For men, low-risk drinking means up to fourteen drinks a week and no more than four drinks on any one occasion. Binge drinking consists of four drinks in one setting for women and five drinks in one setting for men “or a .08 blood alcohol concentration that is typically reached after four or five drinks within a two-hour period,” said Dr. Wilkens. She continued, “Intoxication is determined by the rate you consume and how big you are. Little girls can react differently to the same number of shots than the 6’2” guy next to her. She’s probably going to get drunker.”
Will college kids develop drinking problems? “Their drinking is so out of control, so off the spectrum we don’t know if they’ll develop a drinking problem,” said Ms. Peltz. Dr. Wilkens added, “People will say if he’s drinking like that in college isn’t he destined to become an alcoholic? In reality most (college kids) grow out of it, they just stop, life gets more complicated and they go back to normal drinking.”
“Part of what you’re trying to do as a parent is protect your kid’s developing brain,” said Dr. Wilkens. “The brain’s a fragile thing and anything you can do as a parent to keep drugs and alcohol out of that brain, so it can develop, is a good thing.” As a young person, “You’re also learning so many things, you’re learning how to interact with people, you’re learning your physical and emotional boundaries you’re learning how to take care of yourself, what you can accomplish,’ she said. The take away: when you’re young, learning can be disrupted by choosing substances; when you’re older, by choosing substances you can disrupt your life.
Your Child: Risk and Protective Factors, and How Parents Can Help
By Melanie Wells
The question that haunts every parent - how can I help my children avoid risky behavior? – is not a simple one to answer. According to Rachel Henes, Director of Hallways, a prevention and social-emotional wellness program through the Freedom Institute, the key is to start early, even before Kindergarten.
Henes, addressing an attentive luncheon crowd of PIA School Reps and guests on January 24th, identified some of the potent forces that put our kids at risk:
Media/cultural (exposure to porn, and other sexualized images, perpetuate unhealthy norms);
Social & Academic pressure (the immense pressure to succeed, a constant in affluent culture, has been shown to enhance risk);
Gender norms (pressure to conform to these norms can lead to stress/anxiety and a host of harmful attitudes and behaviors, including harassment and assault).
These forces are complex and not easily overcome. Although Henes acknowledged there is no “magic bullet,” she said parents should begin counter-strategies early. Communication, empathy, prosocial values, emotional support – these take time to build. As protective factors, begun at an early age and practiced regularly over years, they can serve your child well from pre-teen years, through the high-risk adolescent period, and into adulthood.
Henes offered a bit of background on Freedom Institute’s Hallways Program and how its presence in the NYC independent schools has provided insight into the risks that may lead to unhealthy behaviors. Hallways, serving the school network through classroom workshops, faculty training, parent presentations, assessments and counseling, has been in a good position to observe and assess the student population. The program’s focus has moved from primarily substance abuse to a more holistic comprehensive approach that encompasses a broad social-emotional wellness range, with an emphasis on prevention. Through its involvement with the schools, the Hallways program has had a window on the factors that put children at risk.
Although vulnerability to the risks may begin before the teen years, “adolescence is a critical period,” said Henes. Offering a look at “what we know” about high-risk behavior and its origins, she outlined factors that have an impact on the adolescent period:
1) Neuro-pathways in the brain are in formation during adolescence, and BRAINS ARE VULNERABLE. (The more delay in initial use of alcohol or drugs, the better.)
2) Nine out of ten addicts began using before age 18.
3) Teens are exposed to porn, sexualized images, and unhealthy norms; Henes noted that 20% of Middle School students have received a “sext.”
4) Gender norms are a risk factor, with pressure on girls to achieve “effortless perfection” on all fronts, and a corresponding pressure on boys to restrict/suppress emotion.
5) Affluent culture, with its focus on “external success markers” is a strong risk factor, with affluent suburban settings exhibiting higher rates of substance use, depression and anxiety than the average. Psychologytoday.com/articles/201311/the-problem-rich-kids
Henes acknowledged it is not known “precisely how the [suburban affluent culture risk] translates” to the NYC independent school community, but “we assume risks are as high or higher.” With the pressure to succeed intense and unrelenting, and the accompanying anxiety and stress such pressure engenders, young teens turn to substance use in a misguided effort to cope. Henes noted that traditional prevention efforts using “scare tactics” will often backfire; while the scary stories and stats may “impress adults,” they are more likely to “arouse curiosity, even excitement” among teens. Effective prevention, she said, focuses on understanding risk and protective factors, with intent to equip kids with critical skills such as empathy, decision making, and stress management.
What can parents do at home to support their children in avoiding risk, and to help build key skills? One of the most important foundations is effective communication. Talking about “difficult” subjects with children and teens, such as perfectionism, anxiety, stress, fear of failure and low self-image, can help to build their social-emotional skills, such as coping and resisting peer pressure, as well as send messages about important values and expectations. Henes recommended a “daily practice” that is based on effective communication. Try daily to:
EXPRESS care. Check on what’s “important to your child right now” - ask who their friends are, and what they value.
DEMONSRATE care. Put your phone away to talk.
ASK questions – about a variety of things! (The “doing” of “asking the questions” is more important than just the reply.)
FOCUS on effort as well as outcome. Focus on who your children are, not just what they do. (Counter the tendency to constantly track and measure “achievement”.)
FIND quiet moments to be together and communicate. TALK!
TEACH that mistakes are normal – they are “how you learn.”
SUPPORT your children in making their own decisions.
MODEL your own healthy coping. Let your kids see you take stock of your own errors. And let them see you be “kind to yourself” when you deal with your mistakes.
One area critical to emotional wellness, Henes noted, is the development and practice of empathy, or the “valuing of others and their lived experiences.” Empathy, compassion, kindness and self-worth are tightly interwoven and crucial to psychological-emotional health. Henes noted that in many schools, emphasis on social justice and the value of diversity are strong, but the children do not learn how to enact these values. For that, kids need to develop an ability to really listen to, and empathize with, others. Insensitive behavior and low empathy usually go hand in hand. Issues of consent, for instance, arise in a culture of low empathy. Healthy sexuality develops in an atmosphere rich in empathy.
To encourage healthy development of empathy, what can parents do?
If you see an act of empathy (from your child, on TV), call it out, with praise.
Give your children the vocabulary to label/express emotions in healthy ways.
Explicitly communicate your values regarding treatment of others.
Set clear boundaries and expectations. Kids know they’re expected to bring home good grades. Tell them clearly you also have high expectations in how they treat each other; how they counter a micro-aggression. Talk specifically about your expectations regarding consent and respect in relationships.
Explain the “why” behind values. Include kids in setting rules of empathic behavior.
Follow up with consequences if they break these rules.
Challenge harmful gender norms. Talk early and often about healthy gender, by “taking apart” gender stereotypes. “Unpack” notions that set gender-based limits on your child.
Address mixed messages your child may be receiving. Remember your child is growing up not only in your home, but in the surrounding culture.
Recognize and check your own biases and discomfort. Model the ability to speak up if you hear, see, or know about offensive behaviors, jokes, and comments.
Help your child think through healthy decisions. Be there to support your child and brainstorm options, but resist the urge to “fix” their problems.
Last but not least: ask for help and support - for yourself. Connect with other parents. Do what you ask of your kids: talk, discuss the hard stuff. Use your parental network to feel connected and supported in the difficult, but rewarding, task of rearing children who have a healthy capacity for empathy, compassion, self-care and sound decision making.
These skills, though time-consuming to build, will more effectively equip your children to avoid risky behavior than any set of scare tactics, and will serve them well into a mature and healthy adulthood. The effort is worth the reward. Embrace the difficult. Go boldly!
Rachel Henes is the Director of Hallways, Freedom Institute’s evidence-based prevention and social-emotional wellness program that serves over 40 Independent Schools in the New York City area. To learn more about Hallways’ programs, please visit www.hallways.org
Date: January 24, 2017
Time: 12:00 pm - 2:00 pm
Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church
921 Madison Avenue at 73rd Street New York, NY 10021 Map and Directions
On a chilly night in February, three months after a contentious election and in a new year marked by protests on a variety of fronts, sixteen teenagers from over a dozen New York independent schools gathered on a stage and showed they were more mature and thoughtful than many adults. They were surprisingly optimistic about their relationships with their parents, friends, the schools they attend and the world they will inherit. Welcome to Teen Scene 2017, the 31st annual teen panel sponsored by Parents in Action.
Teen Scene is where parents get to hear first-hand reporting of what’s going on with their kids. Moderated by PIA’s veteran teen interrogator and charmer, Lucy Martin Gianino, these student “guides” ranged in age from 15 to 18, from partiers to abstainers, from competitive ski racers to soccer stars, from actors to artists, with over a dozen activities among them that would light up anyone’s resume or college essay. The group included a part time coat check girl, an oboe player, a class president, and two kids with early admittance to Harvard.
Granted, these are not your average couch potato kids; they are a self-selecting group of students who are probably not coming home in police cars or with grades much lower than a B. But they are also an enlightened and articulate group who are figuring out themselves and their futures, and were generous enough to share their journeys with a roomful of 400 plus nervous parents who sat in the Trinity School chapel, wondering whether they would leave terrified or delighted. For the most part, these girls and boys filled the crowd with hope and awe at their wisdom and honesty, but like any event starring irreverent teenagers, there were also a few moments that set off alarms.
The evening got off to a rollicking start when Lucy asked her first question: how had this politically intense past year affected them? Nearly all who answered were frank about their schools’ liberal bent, and noted the election results had been emotional for many. Several mentioned school mates who had reacted swiftly and enthusiastically to join protests, take buses to Washington, create school wide walkouts and question what they saw happening. They were also careful to point out that not all their friends or teachers shared the same beliefs, and that sometimes that dissonance was tough. For some of the seniors, this was their first opportunity to vote, and for others, the recent election made them keenly aware of the privilege to exercise this freedom. A ninth-grade boy said the “election was a wake-up call to pay attention, it’s not just about the interest, but about the impact this election can have on us and that we can have on the next one.”
Academic pressure was clearly a concern for the panel. While independent school parents know their kids are receiving a terrific education, many worry about the emotional price of achieving top grades, and shining in demanding extracurricular activities, all for the sake of getting into the “right” colleges. The students acknowledged they feel constant pressure not just to make excellent marks, but also, as one young man put it, not to “waste the opportunities that have been given to me.” A freshman girl, already feeling pressure to know what college she should attend and what she wants to do when she grows up, lamented somewhat anxiously,” I’m only 15.”
A junior boy quipped sagely, “Competing with everyone in your class, along with the pressure your parents put on you, sets up some interesting conflicts.” Another noted his parents had signed him up for standardized test prep classes for 10 hours every weekend, which, he said in a deadpan voice, is definitely “not great.” “God,” he pleaded out loud, “A little conversation would have gone a long way on that one!” Another young man admitted that his immigrant parents sometimes put undue pressure on him to do well, but in reality, he acknowledged, kids “put unnecessary pressure on ourselves, and that’s definitely unhealthy.”
For the seniors who had either gotten into college early, or were just waiting for their announcements, the application process seemed to have a silver lining. One senior girl said: “The first few months of the fall was like a huge wave of anxiety… but in the end, in my class, we all came together and learned to rely on one another … and now there’s this sweet feeling of nostalgia for all of us.” Another senior, a boy, gave parents some remarkably sane advice: “My parents want the best, but where you go doesn’t mean who you will be.”
If anything emerged as a theme of the evening, it was a plea for parents to listen to their kids, and most importantly, to trust them. Whether it was discussing homework, curfews, partying or friends, all of the speakers stressed the importance of listening and trust.
“A little trust goes a long way; if I breach that, then we have a talk, but let your kids prove themselves to you,” said one 11th grade girl. Another girl, a senior, said she and her parents had very open communications. They talked about all kinds of things, all the time, and she found that very helpful. “I don’t lie and they don’t worry.”
When Ms. Gianino asked, “What can parents do to help their kids?” some responses echoed the “how-to” books most parents have read: “Have dinner together,” a self-assured young man said instantly, and nearly all the heads on the panel bobbed simultaneously. “I have dinner with my parents five times a week, and that makes me feel less stress. I put my phone away, and my mom asks, ‘How was today different than yesterday?’ It definitely lets me get things off my chest before I have to start my night!’”
A 15-year-old girl told the crowd, “Even though we’re not always supposed to at school, texting throughout the day with my mom really helps.” And a senior boy, sounding like a seasoned parenting expert, added: “If you don’t know how to talk to your kids, start a TV show with them, or read a book together,” something he proudly admitted he still does with his own family. One girl described how her parents had begun “a family group chat” and that they had “finally learned how to use emojis.” She elicited a huge laugh from the audience and also some hope, when she described how seeing a smiley face from one of them would make her smile in the middle of a busy day.
While these kids offered advice for parents, many had praise too. One boy praised his parents for telling him they would always help him out if he got into trouble, “No questions asked. There would probably be consequences down the road, but at the moment I needed them, I know they would be helpful.”
The night was not all wholesome sweetness and light; the kids did admit that partying, drugs, and sex are still a part of many high school students’ lives, and as expected, the older kids seemed to know more than the younger ones. A ninth-grade boy said he really hadn’t seen too many kids getting out of control at all, and another stated flatly he was an athlete and strictly avoided drugs and alcohol. Still another told of losing a friend group, after turning down a joint once too often. However, most of the panel acknowledged that kids are holding and attending unchaperoned parties, called “frees,” at many homes, and that fake IDs are rampant. At Lucy’s prodding, several kids admitted they could have drugs, (mostly marijuana) and liquor delivered - without questions - to private homes, in large quantities. Some dealers even take credit cards.
Some panelists took a pragmatic view, noting that most of the people they know party in moderation, and that “most kids try hard not to be idiots.” Those getting “really out of control” are an isolated sub-group, they said. There were reports of Adderall and prescription drug abuse and pre-game drinking before parties, but most kids believed that opiates were used only by a very small fringe. One boy was proud to admit that, when he had been the guy who wasn’t drinking, he took some “out of control” friends home. “I felt like I was doing the right thing, but I had to take quite a shower afterwards,” he told the audience, who laughed a little uncomfortably.
There was more parental discomfort when some panelists naively explained how they “knew” their drugs were safe. One boy maintained that kids didn’t usually use random dealers, but dealt with the same people repeatedly so they could responsibly source their marijuana. “If you know a safe dealer,” another girl said, “then you think the stuff is fairly safe.” It’s probably fair to say that no one in the audience was relieved to hear this.
When sex is the topic, the kids said they preferred to talk to their siblings, friends or school health instructors, and noted hearing plenty of discussions about consent in their classes. On the whole, the kids were not very forthcoming on this subject. They did explain that “hooking up” meant a range of things, depending on the ages of those involved. It may mean ‘making out’ for younger teens, and perhaps something more for 12th graders, although that “something” was kept vague. The panelists stressed that boys and girls tend to develop deep friendships these days, and many of them are reluctant to “mess it up” by getting involved romantically. And while these students do seem to have mature and healthy expectations in this area, one could not help but wonder whether they even have time for dating or relationships, and whether this might impede healthy development.
When asked how they were handling the growing awareness of gender fluidity, the panel agreed almost unanimously that, as New Yorkers, they were “open minded,” and that being transgender was basically a “non-issue.” One boy quipped that it was “awesome that people are so open.” Most also felt that it is much easier for kids to come out today, whether as transgender or gay, and that adults need to stop worrying about pronoun changes, or gender-neutral bath rooms. One junior girl did, however, make a humorous plea for keeping some traditional “girls” bathrooms with stalls, because they were so important “for social interactions” with friends.
As the evening drew to a close, Lucy asked for a few final thoughts from the students, who returned to the issue of trust and close communication. One young man wisely told parents, “If you are assuming the worst, you might not be doing the best.” A girl reminded everyone “to be aware of your home life, be at home, and have dinner together. Kids who are hooking up and doing drugs are the ones with the worst home life.” Perhaps most importantly, said several kids, “Like your children, and don’t make them do things just because of college. Like what they like.” An 11th grade boy told parents that it was vital to help their kids “make their dreams come true, but you’re setting them up to fail if you don’t help them do the work that will make that happen.”
Most touching were the kids who viewed their parents not only in the traditional sense, as guides and role models, but also as friends. A senior boy said with obvious pride, “My mother is my best friend. We are exactly the same person…and because we’ve been best friends my whole life, it’s helped me go a long way.” When Ms. Gianino questioned whether this ran contrary to traditional parenting advice, an 18-year-old girl summed it up best:
“You have to be both, not just one or another. Sometimes we do need the stability that a parent provides but other times, [we] just need someone to talk to, someone to share our lives with and if you can’t be both of those people, it’s a real disservice to your child.”
Out of the mouths of babes. It’s not always so easy to hear every part of what they have to say, but so very important that we remember how much our kids need and want us in their lives, in good times and bad. Do yourselves, and them, a favor: listen!
What would happen if you put an engaging group of experts in front of a crowd of engaged fathers and let the audience drive the conversation? The 8th annual PIA Fathers Forum set out to answer that question. It worked. The session went 45 minutes longer than scheduled, to handle the volume of questions; and even as it ended, dozens of fathers lined up to continue the discussion with panel members one-on-one. The evening provided a judgment-free environment where fathers could talk openly about their struggles.
This year’s PIA Fathers Forum was held on March 7th at the Trevor Day Upper School. Roughly 150 dads, representing 40 different schools, heard from an impressive panel of educators and experts, all fathers themselves.
Moderator Bill DeHaven, Head of School, Winston Preparatory School, was joined by panelists Paul Burke, Head of School at The Nightingale-Bamford School; Joshua Mandel, Doctor of Psychology, Director of Psychological Services at Collegiate School; and Jerry Bubrick, PhD, Senior Director, Anxiety and Mood Disorders Center and Director OCD Service, Child Mind Institute.
In a departure from previous Forums organized around a single topic, this evening’s focus was questions from the audience, which covered a wide range of topics:
The role of fathers
A number of questions noted the changing role of fathers. Bill said that fathers have an image problem, as mothers are traditionally seen as the nurturers and caregivers. It’s time for dads to stand up, he added, as the presence of fathers in children’s lives is so impactful.
Both boys and girls learn about maleness from the male adults around them, Josh said. Men who were themselves taught to suppress their emotions have to guard against slipping back into stereotypical fathering – i.e. exerting control. This just extends this same problem to another generation.
When a father and his child have a close relationship, research shows the child will be better off not just early on but for rest of his or her life. The list of benefits is long and broad:
Higher tolerance for frustration and stress
Increased openness to trying new things and connecting with others
Improved emotional health, empathy, and self-control
Resistance to gender-stereotypical attitudes
Josh works at an all-boys school, and he has seen that boys who have a close relationship with their fathers handle ups and downs more smoothly. Paul works at an all-girls school and stressed that daughters look to fathers for guidance on how men should treat women, including noting how they treat the child’s mother.
A number of questions focused on sources of family conflict, including parent-child conflict and issues between parents themselves.
If your child seems to go out of his or her way to challenge you – “You can’t make me!” – Jerry suggested ways to interrupt that dynamic:
Keep your own emotions in check (kids won’t respond reasonably to negativity)
Focus on effecting a change rather than trying to “win”
Discuss with your spouse – in private and away from the child - strategies for defusing these situations
It’s okay if you and your partner have different approaches to parenting, Josh said. Kids need to understand that mom and dad don’t agree on everything. Recent research shows the benefits of children being exposed to two differing approaches to parenting.
Be careful, however, not to show a lack of respect for your partner in front of kids, Jerry stressed. Instead, model how you want your children to react. Are you teaching them that someone’s right and someone’s wrong, or are you teaching them compromise? A top indicator of a child’s success in school is how his or her parents treat each other.
For fathers dealing with the impact of a divorce on the child: if they are resistant to engaging with you, consider letting them design the time you spend together. That might mean just playing a video game side by side. As Bill said, “We can’t not have a place in our kids’ lives, no matter what.”
Jerry reminded the audience that it’s normal for both girls and boys to be nervous about how their bodies are perceived. He advised being watchful for signs of excess: restrictions on eating, constant mirror-checking, and wearing excess clothing (such as sweaters and long sleeves in summer).
Girls’ struggles, however, are underscored by modern media – women in films (including teens) are four times more likely to be shown wearing sexually revealing clothes as are men, and three times more likely to appear partially naked.
Asked what the fathers in the audience could do, Paul stressed modelling respectful behavior. When the onslaught of images comes, tell your daughter you’re not into that. He quoted Catherine Steiner-Adair: make a point to tell your daughter you love her when she’s at her messiest.
The audience asked about how to identify clinical depression and bipolar disorder. Jerry, an expert in this area, took the lead in responding. He stressed that these conditions are different from moodiness, and that rapid switches between calm behavior and anger was normal for adolescents.
If you’re concerned about depression, watch for marked changes in normal function, such as falling grades (an A student now getting Cs and not caring); increased isolation; and abnormal irritability.
Bipolar disorder can be indicated by wide swings from normal to way-over-the-top to normal to real depression.
Seeing the above symptoms doesn’t mean there’s something there, Jerry continued, but they should spark a conversation. “I noticed you’re not spending as much time with your homework, am I right about that?” Avoid easily dismissed questions like, “Is everything okay?” and make sure you’re having a conversation, not delivering a monologue.
Josh reminded the audience that all kids are going to go through rough times. If your child is struggling at home but is doing well at school or with friends, it may be less of a concern. However, when parents and teachers notice the same problem, that’s more concerning. Bill agreed, saying that “Our kids show their worst selves to us at home,” and stressed that parents of kids in independent schools should leverage the “amazing resources” available to them. Don’t hesitate to advocate for your child.
The panel agreed that recent years in NYC have never been harder for kids, because of social media, the economy, politics, and school pressure. Paul said we’re in an “anxiety epidemic,” exacerbated by the onslaught of technology and what it demands of children.
That said, he advised against raising the stakes, which only adds stress. Kids are going to make mistakes offline and online. Don’t worry about a childhood mistake being discovered later by a college or a future employer (who will most likely be a millennial with a different perspective than yours anyway).
In response to questions about limiting screen time, Jerry said it’s not about a specific number; it’s about balance. This balance will depend on your child’s age and situation. He compared screen time to driving. You have to prove you can be trusted to drive well. Can your child balance screen time with friends, homework, and family? That’s healthy. If the screen is his or her only friend, that’s an issue.
Jerry said that, for younger kids, it’s reasonable to know their passwords and monitor their activity. And if you praise them for what they’re doing well, they’re less likely to shut down communications with you.
Bill reminded the audience to lead by example. Do you yell at your kids to put down their phones while you’re answering a work email? If we can’t stand in a line at Starbucks without pulling out our phones, we’re modelling bad behavior. Also, when you demand that your child put down his or her phone, then what? Offer concrete alternatives.
There were questions about teen drug use as well as how to discuss drug use by adults.
Drugs and your child:
Josh said that, for those with younger children, it’s important to start the conversation early – “What are you hearing about this?” This will make later conversations easier. Rely on words that have meaning in familiar contexts: “We want you to be responsible crossing the street and we want you to be responsible about drugs and alcohol” - but keep it conversational. Paul said that when his kids hear his “teacher voice,” he loses them.
Research shows that it’s important to set high expectations: the later a child’s initial usage, the lower the chances of later drug abuse.
If your kid comes home and you think he or she is drunk or high, that’s NOT the time to have a conversation, that’s the time to make sure your child is safe, or else you’ll trigger a fight-or-flight response. Say, “We’ll talk about it in the morning, or tomorrow evening,” but then be sure you find a time to talk. Let them know you’re frustrated, and don’t be afraid to take something away or otherwise reasonably punish them; this is easier if you’ve set expectations in advance.
Drugs and you:
Regarding your own usage, think in advance about how you want to answer their questions. What you say is your decision, but if you want them to think about consequences, it’s important to stress the negative aspects – if not of your own experience, then that of a friend’s.
If your family has a history of addiction, Paul doesn’t recommend hiding it: “The unmentionable becomes the unmanageable.” Josh agreed, saying that there’s no topic we can’t talk to your kids about, but there are developmentally appropriate ways to do it. Don’t talk to 4th graders about heroin, but you can talk about prescription drugs or their uncle who smokes or the caffeine in sports drinks.
Staying connected as children grow
Maintain communication even when your child pushes you away:
As adolescents get older, they may cut off communication – “Stop, Dad. I don’t want to talk about it.” Paul stressed that this is totally normal. It’s all about being present until they come back to you. It’s unpredictable, but when it does happen, be present, which means putting other things aside. He quoted Mike Riera: as your child gets older, the bad news is, you get fired as her manager; the good news is, you get rehired as her consultant.
Josh explained the reason your teen may be pushing you away: adolescence is the bridge between dependence and independence and they may see you as a roadblock to that change. But when they push you away the most is when they may need you the most. Teens need love, approval, and compassion, even when they say they don’t. As Bill said, don’t give up when you get the initial eye-roll of resistance.
As your adolescent grows, your job is not to always reassure them, Jerry pointed out, even if they want you to. Like scratching a mosquito bite, constant reassurance feels good in the short term but causes long-term harm. Your “protector mode” can stop your kids from figuring things out on their own.
Adapting means doing things together that your kids want to do, instead of just including them in things that you want to do. Jerry also stressed the importance of spending time with each of your kids individually. He has identical twin daughters, and they are often called “the girls;” he focuses on treating them as individuals.
If they don’t want you in their room or to open their door, that may be okay, Josh suggested. Try texting them (and don’t feel hurt if they don’t respond). Find a way to meet them on their own terms. There will be times to invade your child’s privacy when you need to, but if you don’t need to, perhaps don’t.
Continue to keep the relationship strong even after your children become adults, Paul said. Girls older than 18 in particular can face tremendous pressures and may find themselves in tough situations. Connecting to older children may mean fighting to overcome your own fear of discussing uncomfortable topics.
And finally: Listen:
When we listen to our kids, Jerry said, they start to open up – maybe not right away, but eventually. When they do come talk to you, the first thing they hear shouldn’t be your ideas. If you jump right to trying to fix the problem, they’ll feel that you’re shutting them down. He said that if the audience only took away one thing from Fathers Forum this year, he would choose that. And he shared a great video to underscore that point.
PIA’s own Chris Theodoros wrapped up the session by thanking the panel and the fathers who attended. As Chris said, events like Fathers Forum are a great way to learn from those around you. He also stressed the availability of great resources such as Common Sense Media, The Child Mind Institute, and Understood.org, as well as the wonderful independent schools our children attend.
Date: March 7, 2017
Time: 7:00 pm - 8:30 pm
Trevor Day High School
312 East 95th Street New York, NY 10128 Map and Directions
Figuring It Out Financially – Savvy Parents Make for Savvy Kids
By Pamela Awad
We know there are lots of rules - rules of etiquette, rules for writing, rules of the game, even rules for radicals – but did you know there are rules for making your child a money genius? Beth Kobliner does and she explained some of these rules one afternoon recently, while speaking at Parents in Action’s annual Mother’s Day Lunch.
Kobliner’s mission is to make kids financially savvy by helping parents make their kids smarter about money. While a member of President Obama’s Advising Council on Financial Capability, she created the website, MoneyAsYouGrow.org. On Sesame Street, she taught Elmo about saving, spending and sharing in the segment, “For Me, For You, For Later: Three Jars.” And in her new book, Make Your Kid a Money Genius (even if you’re not), she explains how “parents are the number one influence on our kids money behaviors.”
Brunette, sporting large black-framed eyeglasses, Kobliner, a mother of three, began by explaining it’s never too early to start talking to children about money. “By age three kids understand money basics, they understand exchange and they understand value…by age seven many of those money habits are set,” she said. This doesn’t mean “you’ve missed the boat if your kids are 13 or over,” she continued, “but it does mean that you have to focus on those teachable moments.” One of them is to “use cash for kids, up until the eleventh grade.” Remember your passbook savings account? They’re hardly in use today and most financial transactions are on-line or by credit/debit card, so kids rarely see cash being exchanged. With cash, Kobliner explained, “kids understand there are finite limits.” Children tend to be concrete thinkers and only when they’re older do they understand how each “swipe” signifies dollars spent. So while Eloise may have grown up saying, “charge it please,” most of us need to teach our children how to monitor credit card spending. To that end, Kobliner advises against giving children credit cards linked to your checking account or cosigning a credit card with your child. “Not only does [cosigning] leave you responsible for the amount, if he misses a payment it will lower your credit score,” she said. She also believes a first credit card shouldn’t be given to a child until she’s a junior or senior in college.
How well do you play the waiting game? How about your kids? Impulse control, or the ability to wait, is the trait Kobliner believes matters most when it comes to saving and spending money. She referred to the “Marshmallow Test,” the Stanford study on delayed gratification, first conducted in the 1960’s. The premise was simple: a group of 5 year–olds were given the choice to eat one marshmallow immediately or wait 15 minutes and get two marshmallows later. The children’s ability to delay eating the first treat was a predictor of how well they did later in life; those who waited had higher SAT scores, lower body masses and were better adapted socially. Kobliner explained how the children who waited had “the skill and technique to divert their attention,” traits that can be taught to children, “if you set a goal and have them work toward it.” Helping children understand it’s worth the wait may be worth its weight in gold - learning the skills associated with impulse control makes kids better savers and spenders. That applies to compound interest too, (the longer you wait for your money to compound, the faster it grows.)
Regarding allowance, Kobliner advises parents to do what works best for them. “The bottom line is, it doesn’t matter if you give your kid a formal allowance or not, to teach them to be good financial citizens,” she said. If you decide allowance is how you want to allocate money, Kobliner suggests parents follow a few rules:
Be clear – Discuss what this money is to be used for. For example, is allowance to be used for all Ubers or Ubers after midnight; for ordering in using Seamless; for or all meals out with friends or for clothes above the basics that you provide?
Be consistent - “Stick with what you say,” Kobliner warned. She advises parents to be realistic and factor in as many variables as they can think of when deciding the amount of allowance. This makes it easier to avoid inconsistencies.
Use cash and give control - Determine how much money you’re comfortable giving your kids but give them the freedom to control how they spend their money.
Don’t make allowance dependent upon household chores or grades. Making one’s bed or emptying the dishwasher is a fact of life. And there’s intrinsic value to working; kids need to learn to work hard because they care about doing well not because there will be a financial reward.
A child’s most important financial decision is college, another of Kobliner’s basic tenets, and she believes parents should start talking to kids about college by the end of the eighth grade. “A college degree has never been more valuable; it’s a great investment and the most important thing you can do to make a child a money genius,” she said. But “you don’t have to be a money genius to make your child one,” she continued, “modeling good behavior is a good idea,” and of course, talking to your kids is invaluable. Among her “money tips for talking”:
1) Keep money talks age appropriate.
2) Talk to your girls as well as your boys about money. (Studies have shown that even today parents talk to their sons about money more than their daughters.
3) Keep money fights behind closed doors.
4) If you’re philanthropic, talk to your kids about how you’re giving, why and to whom.
5) DON’T tell your kids how much you earn, what your net worth is, or how much you have in savings. Letting them know you “have enough” is enough.
6) DON’T let your kids know how much you pay the housekeeper, babysitter or nanny. That kind of knowledge negatively empowers a child and cedes the caregiver’s authority.
“Teach children and you teach the parents,” Kobliner said. A solid financial future is in everyone’s best interest.
NYC-Parents in Action Fall Seminar 2017: EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING BEGINS AT HOME
By Melanie Wells
Teen anxiety may be up, but there is help, and hope. That’s the encouraging message the 300+ parents who attended Parents in Action’s Fall Seminar, a collaborative event with The Jed Foundation (JED), heard on October 25th.
A trend many parents have noticed - an increase in anxiety disorders among teens and young adults - was confirmed. But the good news is, experts have gotten better at clinically identifying young people in crisis, and today’s youth are more open to talking about their emotions than those even just ten years ago. To concerned parents, eager to know what they can do, an impressive panel of experts from JED and Columbia University offered data, anecdotes, gentle humor, sympathy, and sound advice.
JED, a nonprofit “that exists to protect emotional health and prevent suicide for our nation’s teens and young adults,” provided three of the four panelists, with a fourth from Columbia University.
Moderated by John MacPhee (Executive Director, JED), the panel, collectively, offered a dazzling breadth of expertise: Nance Roy, Ed.D., Chief Clinical Officer, JED; Victor Schwartz, MD, Chief Medical Officer, JED; and Anne Marie Albano, Ph.D., ABPP, Director of Columbia University’s Clinic for Anxiety and Related Disorders, all engaged in a lively conversational presentation, prompted by questions posed by John MacPhee.
John MacPhee: What, currently, are the most common teen mental health issues?
Victor Schwartz: After ADHD (about 10%), the big issues are “mood disorder and anxiety disorder, with increased rates of diagnosis over the past ten years.” Mood disorders include problems such as depression, he added, noting also increased reporting of thoughts of self-harm among young people, though the rate for suicide is still significantly lower than in older people.
Anne Marie Albano added: “Anxiety disorder comes in many forms – phobias, separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, OCD.” First onset of anxiety can show up in a child as young as six years, who, by high school age, she said, may exhibit several types of anxiety at once. In the high school years, as many as one in four teens suffer from some kind of anxiety disorder.
Nance Roy: The problem doesn’t go away with the end of high school: “Anxiety disorders now surpass depression” among college students, she noted.
JM: What other stressors afflict teens today, or exist in combo with an anxiety diagnosis?
VS: Social media is a foremost stressor although “not everything about it is bad,” he noted. Its increased usage seems to have risen in tandem with the rise in anxiety. While it’s “nice to connect,” he added, the capacity social media offers to “gang up” on others, or to dilute the strength of relationships, can be stress-inducing.
He also noted pressures driven by a rise in income inequality; there is a growing sense among kids that there is “no room for error,” and with that comes a desperate fear of missing the point of entry into the winning team, the “1%.” For anxious teens, “every step” feels like it counts.
JM: What about the interplay of substance abuse and mental health?
AMA: “Children who have an anxiety disorder before adolescence are eight times more likely to have a substance abuse problem by the end of adolescence,” she said. Social phobias, a primary source of anxiety, can lead to use of marijuana, alcohol and nicotine, to which teens turn in order to help “loosen up” and manage anxiety-producing social interaction.
NR: For teens, self-medicating with substances is often seen as an “easier step” than finding a psychiatrist or therapist. She emphasized that, for many safety reasons, keeping focus on substance abuse is a priority. As more states legalize marijuana, there will be more challenges in controlling use. For example, currently there are no “sobriety tests” for marijuana so driving under the influence goes undetected; as opiate misuse rises it will reach more communities, including our high schools and colleges. And, she warned, opiate misuse with alcohol is a potentially fatal combination.
MacPhee noted research at JED showing millennials (over age 21) and Gen Z (under 21) are more open to talking about emotional issues, and more culturally accepting than previous generations; both factors can be helpful in reducing stigma and encouraging more people to seek treatment. In light of that, he asked the panel:
How can parents best determine if a teen is struggling?
AMA: Adolescence has long been labelled “the storm and stress” age, with moodiness to be expected – yet, “you know your child better than anyone.” Look for danger signs that go beyond ordinary moodiness, she said, such as a sustained low mood, isolation from the family, sleep patterns that veer way off from the usual.
NR: Ask yourselves how long the troubled behavior is sustained; whether it subsides, and if not, pay close attention.
VS: Comparing anxiety distress signals to headaches, he noted “people get them” and that’s not alarming, but if “they worsen, interfere with daily life, and do not get better,” pay attention.
JM: What should a parent do if he or she DOES detect alarming signs?
AMA: LISTEN. Keep conversations going, she advised, but do it on their [the kids’] terms. After they “grunt,” avoiding coherent response, she said, “stick around, be available.” Don’t jump to telling THEM how THEY feel, she urged, but instead ask open-ended questions like, “Tell me more about that,” or, “What you do you think about that?” Then: LISTEN.
NR: Car pools are a “good place to listen in on kids’ chatter.” Say nothing, she advised; instead, LISTEN. She also suggested engaging in activities where conversation can “unfold naturally,” rather than targeted conversations where kids may feel under scrutiny. And, she added, when they do talk, validate. Don’t jump to being judgmental.
VS: If parents were to ask their kids every 15 minutes, “How are you NOW?” it would reveal their own anxiety, and wouldn’t really help the kids. Echoing the other panelists, he advised parents to “be available,” and to “hang around, listen.”
AMA: Parents should “catch the positives;” in other words, don’t overreact to errors while failing to notice and point out positive behaviors. Roy agreed, adding that she recalled suffering over her daughter’s worries but then finding, the next day, that everything was fine. “Keep your reactions in check,” she advised.
JM: If you believe your child does need clinical care, what do you say/do?
VS: Start with your primary care doctor/pediatrician. Ask friends who’ve sought help in similar circumstances. Talk to the school’s guidance staff. He reminded parents to also discuss appointments/treatment with the child before embarking on a plan.
AMA: Parents need to be informed consumers. “Get professionals who understand evidence-based courses of action,” she advised. Studies have shown treatments (cognitive behavioral therapy, medications, or combination of the two) to be effective, she said, and parents need to find clinicians “specifically trained to effectively deliver the treatments that will work,” but not all fit that criterion. Ultimately, she said, the goal is to give your children tools so they can be “out enjoying the world, not just on a therapist’s couch.” Send them back out once they have those tools, she said, but teach them to “touch base and use mental health services from time to time,” if needed.
JM: How does a parent deal with a child who imposes self-pressure?
NR: A recent focus group at a rigorous, prestigious college revealed that students’ peers are the “ones who put the most pressure” on each other. She cited a conversation between two students: Student A: “I studied until 2 a.m.” Student B: “You slept???” Roy emphasized the importance of “keeping a balance.” Encourage kids to “develop passions and strive for balance,” she said, rather than focus solely on academic accomplishments.
VS: The sense that one must be either “a winner” or “in trouble” isn’t helpful. The evidence is clear, he added, that non-academic skills like knowing how to play and to use the imagination help build life skills, inter-personal skills and social skills. Tell kids it’s “okay to do something frivolous,” he said. And, added Roy: “It’s okay to mess up.”
JM: What about bullying and exclusion?
AMA: “Look for signs of changes in attitude; attempts to self-isolate; fears about arriving at a social event before the last minute; or shutting down social media contacts.” Parents should get involved, she said, but not judge. Rather, say: “Please tell me what you are feeling,” and try to get them to open up. “Hear the details” without overreaction, then make decisions.
VS: You can try to problem solve with your kids. Help them identify interests that might lead them to join new groups; talk them through strategies.
JM: How can parents help their kids develop protective factors, in advance?
NR: We’re hearing from colleges that students arrive “less resilient than ever before,” lacking basic skills like doing laundry, managing an ATM card, or eating and sleeping well.
Prepare your kids with basic life skills, she advised, so they can manage everyday tasks and can then better focus on their school work. “Give them opportunities to try to navigate for themselves,” she said, especially in conflicts or hard situations. Sometimes, “let them fail.”
Dr. Albano listed factors associated with resilience: 1) Social support – “relationships you can count on,” which can be established and nurtured early through playdates, clubs, interests; 2) Ability to delay gratification – teach them to put off gratification by saying “you cannot have it right now” so they learn to wait, and eventually, to prioritize.
VS: Let them join an orchestra, band, sports team, club or activities-centered group – all “good places to ‘hit wrong notes’ and see it’s not the end of the world.”
JM: Recently, suicide has been presented not only in the media but in the arts, e.g., 13 Reasons Why and Dear Evan Hansen - sometimes done well, sometimes not. How should parents respond to this?
VS: It all depends on the age and maturity of the viewer. For pre-adolescents, he added, 13 Reasons Why wasn’t helpful; although its intent was cautionary, the viewer needed a “sense of irony” to grasp that intent. “Be thoughtful about what your child can handle,” he advised, and be aware that “many may be overwhelmed” by some material. Read about or pre-screen a show first. Or, if like 13 Reasons Why, it’s already streaming on the internet and hard to monitor, sit down and “watch with your child,” he said, so you can “use it as an opportunity for thoughtful conversation.”
JM: How can parents know if a college has strong mental health services available?
NR: Check to see if it is a JED campus (www.jedcampus.org), which means it will have a comprehensive approach to promoting emotional wellbeing and addressing suicide and substance abuse prevention. If your child already has a history, ask about services ahead of time – don't wait until arrival. Check the “campus climate” (fast-paced? compassionate? pressured?). Check opportunities to develop community, e.g., clubs and groups. Loneliness can be a huge problem in the first year, she warned. Consider factors like distance from home and the campus size; help your child find a good fit.
AMA: Parents sometimes mistakenly think “it will all be different at college” with RA’s, new friends, etc., but instead the kids may “flame out.” Anxiety does NOT disappear with the high school diploma, she said. There’s no stigma: if your child is struggling, connect her before she goes with short term college readiness groups, or services she will need.
Q and A: Several questions were taken from the audience. One parent wondered how to spot teen symptoms of depression and withdrawal in an era where there is so much “silence.” With teen lives now lived largely on social media, there’s little for a parent to hear, and very little transparency. Kids may say, “I’m fine,” but really aren’t – so, how does the parent know?
VS: “Find time for meals together and shared activities,” to counter this silence. Look closely at function: are they sleeping/eating okay? Getting their school work done? If not, probe further.
AMA: Make family time a priority, where all the phones go into a basket, such as dinner time. Also, take the phone away at bedtime, not only to help kids have better sleep, but also to teach them how to get themselves up with an alarm clock. Teach them to self-regulate, she urged. Finally, establish a centrally located place out in the open to do homework, like the dining room table, to ensure regular time when parents can see and monitor their children.
The rise in anxiety is real, and parents, in turn, are justifiably anxious about it. But the take-away of the evening was hopeful: there are simple things parents can do, now, without preparation or expertise, to support their kids:
COMMUNICATE – keep conversation alive, without judgmental overreaction. LISTEN – to your child’s responses. WATCH – for signs of changes that don’t seem like the usual adolescent moodiness. TEACH – ordinary life skills, to build confidence and resilience. ACT –if you do suspect deeper problems, and seek expert help.
HELPFUL RESOURCES: Set To Go - JED’s Guide to the Transition from High School to College and Adulthood: https://www.settogo.org
“Fiction is the most powerful way to explore an issue,” Doug Brunt said over lunch recently. It was the second Thursday in November and he was speaking at the NYC-Parents in Action benefit lunch about his third novel, Trophy Son.
“Our youth culture has changed enormously since the time I grew up.” (Brunt was born in 1971.) “I wanted to explore the hyper-scheduling, the intense commitment and the greater parental involvement that we see now.” To do this he chose sports as the vehicle: “Sports is really a bellwether for the youth culture and youth athletics,” and tennis in particular; “the most extreme end of the sports picture. It’s a very narrow, very specialized field of development.”
Brunt is father of an eight, six and four year-old and husband of journalist Megyn Kelly. The inspiration for Trophy Son came when a fellow parent began describing the ordeal of being a chess parent. Both were waiting for their four year-olds to be dismissed from a pre-school chess class when the father began describing the routine of tournament play: waiting for a game to begin, playing the game, waiting for the next game, playing and waiting every day of the week-end, most weeks of the year. Brunt decided this was the stuff of which novels are made and Trophy Son was born - a story about a tennis prodigy and the father who maniacally grooms him to be the best tennis player in the world.
While researching the book, Brunt wondered if this trend towards early involvement in sports was good for the sports business. Speaking to the CEO of the sports equipment company, Rawlings, he found quite the opposite. Kids are no longer multi sport athletes and the purchasing of athletic equipment is no longer seasonal, it’s an “or,” not an “and” game; kids now play one sport only and purchase equipment accordingly- a baseball mitt or basketball, a soccer ball or tennis racquet. And as kids miss out on the benefits of multi sport play, grandparents feel a loss too. At many stops on his book tour grandparents were “lamenting the lack of time they have with their grandkids, (saying) if I want to see my grandkids I have to go to the sidelines of the soccer game.” These exchanges,” he says, were “ touching, endearing and a little sad.”
Dressed in a navy suit, white shirt and brown striped tie, Brunt talked about the “cultural infrastructure” that determines a child’s athletic success and looks something like this: Your eight year-old joins the travel team (which means both weekday and week-end practice) in order to qualify for the nine year-old travel team, so she’ll be able to play well at increasingly competitive levels as she gets older. Brunt feels “it’s a narrower way to grow up and there’s no kids getting bored and figuring out for themselves how to get un-bored.”
The book he, said, is not “a scathing assessment of youth athletics,” but a warning about the pitfalls of obsessively pursuing a single sport from a young age. He believes athletics teaches teamwork, discipline and other life lessons, but he doesn’t want these attributes to be learned at the expense of a broadly focused or varied childhood experience. “I’m very much for passion and concentrated effort. I want to see kids’ eyes light up with enthusiasm for an activity.” What he opposes is the “systematic requirement for early specialization,” that seems to be the standard today.
Brunt sees two categories of problems developing from the current trend in youth athletics. Intensive training at a young age can cause physical problems including an increase in stress fractures and other overall injuries. When these injuries are treated with pain medication, there’s a risk of overprescribing and subsequent addiction that in turn feeds into the nationwide opioid epidemic. But the novel focuses on the mental and developmental problems that result from the all-consuming nature of specialization. “A narrow field of development in those teen years can be dangerous,” Brunt says; young athletes may be left emotionally unprepared to handle new situations and, socially, years behind their peers, particularly if they’ve left the academic mainstream.
There’s a legendary story that a frog is impervious to the danger of water slowly heated to boiling. Brunt uses this as an analogy for how we got to this place of high expectations and early specialization. He says the “slow acting reasons” include the allure of pro sports in terms of money and celebrity; an increase in disposable income that allows parents to support their child’s efforts and/or vicariously live through him or her; today’s heightened level of parental involvement in our “tiger mom” culture; and, lastly, the changing expectations of college admissions boards who now look for students of exceptional achievement in one area, rather than students who are well-rounded. And while parents are usually well- meaning, their efforts may be misguided.
“Drive, drive, drive isn’t better, better, better; at a point it’s actually disruptive,” he warns. Brunt thinks communication and awareness are the keys to change and while it may be slow in coming, change is in the air. The more parents talk to each other and to their children’s teachers and coaches, the easier it will be to change cultural expectations. Finding a passion and excelling at it at the expense of doing something (or nothing) for the fun of it leaves little room for discovery and play. “Of course you have to practice, have to play, have to get good,” said Brunt, but it doesn’t have to be all consuming and kids shouldn't have to miss out on other things. “By the time I’m a granddad, I expect to be spending a lot of time with my grandkids.”
School Relations Luncheon 2017 – Stress, Anxiety & Substance Abuse in Youth: A Primer In Prevention
By Lori Gaon
Anxiety is the most common category of mental health disorders and the most likely to affect children, surpassing even the more widely known ADHD. This was one of the startling facts parents learned at the December 5th NYC-Parents in Action School Relations Luncheon with guest speaker Dr. Marianne Chai, Medical Director of the New York Center for Living.* Dr. Chai provided the rapt audience with eye-opening statistics on anxiety, its prevalence, and its link to depression and addiction. Recent data shows anxiety is the number one issue bringing students to college counseling centers, surpassing depression and relationship problems.
New Yorkers pride themselves on handling a certain level of anxiety; it goes with the territory in a fast-paced, competitive city. But adding children into the mix changes the equation for parents. We say we want our kids to be happy, so as we see them struggle to navigate social media, academics, personal relationships and more, we may wonder – how much is too much? The more screen time, the higher the incidence of feeling isolated and anxious, and the more stress they experience, the more their troubling feelings are compounded, which can then contribute to various social disorders, depression and addictive behaviors. For our children, if not for ourselves, anxiety can become a threat.
“A certain amount of stress is good,” Dr. Chai began, emphasizing that problems arise when the stress becomes chronic, upsetting emotional balance and leading to substance problems, addiction, or worse. Dr. Chai warned that we have seen an alarming rise in teen suicide, suicidal ideation and self-harm. “This trend is not going away,” she added.
“Stress and anxiety can change your brain,” Dr. Chai said. Stanford researchers found that the larger the amygdala (where the “fight or flight” response and emotional center live), the greater the anxiety level in kids.
Most anxiety is normal, and every child goes through phases where levels rise or fall, normally a temporary and harmless part of development. Dr. Chai explained that anxiety can become “pathologic” when it impairs the ability to function and increases risk for additional health issues, such as substance abuse or addiction. “Pathologic” anxiety is a disorder.
Some eye-opening statistics about anxiety disorder include:
25% of kids in the US will have an anxiety disorder between ages 13 and 18 (vs. 7% in Australia).
1 out of 3 people will have an anxiety disorder during their lifetime
75% with anxiety disorders see signs before age 21
3% will have “severe anxiety disorder”
the disorder may incur up to $42 billion in annual health costs
only 18% of teens with anxiety disorder receive treatment.
Anxiety affects women twice as often as men. It may be “silent,” receiving less attention than ADHD because it’s less noticeable; for instance, a child suffering anxiety may sit quietly in the back of a classroom in contrast to the student with ADHD, who may be disruptive.
Anxiety disorder may be diagnosed when symptoms:
1) are present for at least six months,
2) significantly interfere with a person’s routine,
3) are out of proportion to the actual danger present.
Cultural changes may be implicated in the rise in teen anxiety. Students who have technology at their fingertips with the introduction of smartphones, appear to experience declines in what were, until quite recently, typical aspects of teen life. Notable changes include:
Less time spent hanging out with friends
Fewer teens obtaining drivers licenses
Fewer hours of sleep
Less face to face connectivity with others (thereby increasing feelings of loneliness).
To put things in perspective, Dr. Chai said, kids who spend three hours or more on a device are 35% more likely to have a risk factor for suicide.
Anxiety affects emotional balance and wellbeing. It can trigger feelings of fear, irritability and anger, while impeding happiness and joy. Physical symptoms may include increased heart rate, stomachaches, headaches, dizziness, loss of sleep and loss of bone density, thus impairing overall health over time, according to Dr. Chai.
“Anxiety can be a silent killer,” Chai said, becoming ugly when it affects a person’s thought processes. It can negatively color quality of life through experiences of frightening thoughts and scenarios, fear, and development of “tunnel vision” with respect to every possible negative scenario.
“Seeing the world through the lens of fear is a very sad perspective,” Chai said. Often kids avoid whatever makes them anxious, giving preference to familiarity and repetition, which then gives the fear more power. A familiar example of this is separation anxiety in small children. If diagnosed early and treated, a preschooler who is prone to anxiety “can change their trajectory in life,” with intervention.
Many students self-medicate, thinking that pot is helpful in reducing social stress and anxiety. However, with persistent usage, pot can have the reverse effect. “Teenagers who smoke pot weekly are more than twice as likely as nonusers to have an anxiety disorder in their late 20s, even if they stop using,” Dr. Chai said.
Kids seeking ways to alleviate stress and enhance their ability to study, may turn to the easily accessible drug, Xanax. “It’s being implicated with almost every unintentional overdose in college- and post-college-aged kids we see in the city today. It interplays terribly with alcohol and opiates, causing respiratory failure,” said Dr. Chai.
The good news, Dr. Chai noted, is that anxiety disorders are highly treatable and treatment is effective in 60-90% of cases. Unfortunately, only 18% of those in need of treatment receive it, compared to 79% for ADHD.
Are we, as parents, at the root of this anxiety issue? According to Dr. Chai, many parents try, with good intentions, to ease their children’s suffering, but in doing so, may actually reinforce the anxiety by allowing the child to avoid stressful situations.
Psychoeducation for parents (parent training), is a treatment boasting high success rates by focusing on educating the parents rather than treating the child. The parent is trained to discontinue the negative reinforcement of the anxious behavior, and to refrain from automatically protecting the child from anxiety or fear.
Dr. Chai concluded her talk with some professional wisdom for parents: “Research has shown that the most successful people are those who experience failure and develop resilience to keep going. We have to allow our children to fail fast and early, and learn coping skills.”
Although this may be easier said than done, it's advice we should heed, and well worth the effort, to help our children develop strength. We all must learn to cope with the inevitable stressors that provoke anxiety; let’s not forget our children deserve to develop that ability, too, just as we did.
* The New York Center for Living is an outpatient treatment center for adolescents, teens and their families that focus on issues of substance and alcohol abuse. Dr. Marianne Chai is board certified in general, child and adolescent psychiatry, as well as in addiction psychiatry and integrative and holistic medicine. She completed her residency training in general psychiatry at New York University, followed by fellowships in child and adolescent psychiatry at the New York University Child Study Center and in addiction psychiatry at New York University Medical Center Division of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse.
Date: December 5, 2017
Time: 12:00 pm - 2:00 pm
Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church
921 Madison Avenue at 73rd Street New York, NY 10021 Map and Directions
NYC-Parents in Action’s 32nd Annual Teen Scene was held on February 12th, 2018 at the Trinity School, in a packed room of over 400 people, where 16 high schoolers spoke from the heart. They shared only their first names, candidly answering questions from long-time moderator and current PIA Co-President Lucy Martin Gianino, as well as from the audience. A panel of eight girls and eight boys from a sampling of NYC schools (co-ed, single sex, progressive and traditional) discussed a wide range of issues that affect high school life in NYC. There were moments of shared laughter among the panelists and the audience alike, as students offered answers and thoughts that were reassuring yet revealing. One panelist told the parents, “We students are doing a whole lot of good in addition to [doing] the bad.” Despite a changing world, with vast cultural shifts brought about by social media and technology, what hasn't changed much among teens is how decisions are made, why friendships are chosen and how different lifestyles are explored.
The first topic addressed how teens experience pressure, growing up and attending NYC independent high schools. The panelists reminded parents that all high schoolers are dealing with the same issues: finding friends; balancing the demands of school work and extracurricular activities; and peer pressure. Several students emphasized the importance of finding the “right people to hang out with.” Friends, apparently, may be both cause and cure for students’ anxiety (albeit not the same ones!). Panelists agreed that the increased presence of social media encourages a need for “instant gratification,” and prompts a fear of missing out (“FOMO”). Notably, if there were issues at school, students said they often found solace in friends from camp or other extra-curricular programs, such as sports or dance teams. Maintaining good friendships, the panel agreed, is key to surviving high school. Interestingly, there was no mention of turning to teachers as a resource, and “school is never the answer.”
On the topic of smart phones and the control they exert over teenagers, the students did not hide their attachment to their devices. They admitted that while some kids may be “addicted,” there was some policing going on among friends. One student expressed dismay that, on a senior school trip, the students who snuck in phones took away from the other students’ group bonding experience because the phone users were “always looking for Wi-Fi or charging spots.” The widespread perception that technology is out of control and social media is taking over peoples’ lives is real, the panel acknowledged, but also noted that teens realize Facebook and Instagram lives are curated and are not a reflection of real life. Further, the students appeared to understand that even innocuous posts can negatively affect peers, making them feel left out, or worse. As one young man exclaimed “[It] can break your heart!”
When asked how it feels to start high school, the students explained that entering 9th grade was a big leap from middle school: “It is scary, teachers treat you differently, expect more from you.” By junior year, however, the “vibe” is different, as the students, by then, feel like upper-class-men and -women. The biggest laugh of the evening was a senior’s delayed realization that “now everything counts, including 9th grade transcript!” In 12th grade, for all schools, the college process consumes students. One panelist suggested a useful tip for parents regarding college applications: “Don’t keep talking about it, we [students] already know what a big deal it is; [parents need to] just know how much stress your kid is dealing with.”
Sound advice for parents trying to help alleviate stress included making time for dinner every evening as a family. Panelists agreed that despite hectic schedules, dinner together is a good way to relieve pressure, as it allows the students permission to take a 20-minute break.
On the topic of weekend socializing, the panelists confirmed that there are unsupervised house parties. Sometimes good children make bad decisions, they noted, so keeping the lines of communication open is key to managing risky behavior. There seemed to be a casual attitude from the whole group regarding consumption of alcohol. One student explained that at least 90 percent of students in high school have had a drink. Regarding parents offering their teenage children alcoholic beverages, one girl remarked, “Awkward!” but impressively, all the students agreed on the mantra “stall when possible.” Referring to “club kids,” the panelists agreed that despite bouncer bag checks, high schoolers do manage to sneak in clear alcohol in water bottles, for example, or participate in heavy “pre-gaming” before homecoming weekend parties. Despite this level of consumption, there was widespread awareness among the panelists of the dangers of alcohol and drugs to the developing teenage brain, information picked up in school sponsored programs and from outside resources such as Hallways.
Marijuana’s recent legalization in some states has made high schoolers more willing to try it, despite associated risks. Some have even seen fellow students smoking in class with a very cavalier attitude. The prevalence of vaping (using both flavors or scented oils and more addictive substances, such as pot) was of great concern among parents. Students reported significant vaping use among their peers at all high school grade levels, either to relax or to get high without getting caught. Parents learned that vape shops (without checking customers’ ID) routinely sell the popular Juul, a small, vapor-delivery device made to resemble an ordinary pen.
Addressing sex and relationships, the panelists reported significant knowledge about health and sexual activity safety. There was strong concern about, and well-informed interest in, the #MeToo movement. Further, conversations on gender equity, in settings both formal and informal, are occurring regularly among teens.
After this in-depth discussion of teenage life in New York City, the students closed with some heartwarming thoughts, when asked by a parent what “makes them hopeful.” They said they were “hopeful about the future,” and listed as reasons: their friends; the ability to do so many different things; the desire to help others, to bring about change, to educate; and to share opportunities. This positive, cheerful vision further lifted the spirits of an already enthralled audience. While teenage years are considered the age of rebellion, it was comforting to parents to know the kids value what is “right” despite what we hear may be “wrong.”
Vaping: Essential Information and Strategies for Protecting Youth
(Presented in partnership with the Hallways Program of Freedom Institute)
By Melanie Wells
The explosive rise of vaping and JUULing is a deceptively normalized phenomenon, with research now revealing that these activities are far less benign than users initially assumed. And yet, according to Hallways, parents should not despair, but should remember this hopeful message:
“YOU are still the most important influence in your child’s life. TALK to your kids, early and regularly.”
In perfect alignment with PIA’s long-time support for effective communication, Freedom Institute’s Rachel Russell (Chief Clinical Officer, Freedom Institute) and Katherine Prudente (Hallways Program Manager) enlightened the audience at the Collegiate School on Wednesday, April 11 with a reassuring message: you have a key role to play in protecting your child’s well-being, and there are strategies you can employ to effectively do so. That was the good news.
The more sobering news, delivered first, was a dense tutorial on the ominous explosion of the use of JUULing/vaping by teens, and the clinical facts surrounding it. The audience was urged to take note: “We are at a critical turning point,” said Russell, likening it to a similar flash point that emerged around cigarette smoking decades ago, when a long-ignored health threat demanded action and intervention.
Before launching into the details, Russell asked the audience, “Are you curious? Nervous?” Both feelings were acknowledged. Russell assured the crowd that they’d learn “essential info” to better understand vaping/JUULing and to counter myths; and they’d also learn practical tips to use at home.
First, Russell offered some background on teen development, pointing out that parents need to know what will NOT work with this age group. “Scare tactics,” she emphasized, “DO NOT work.” (Think “just say no” and “here is your brain on drugs” – tactics from the crack cocaine years.) Further, she added, facts alone (even medical lectures) don’t work either. Kids, typically, do not ingest these facts and then avoid substances; rather, the research shows, they listen, become more curious, and then go experiment. What does work, said Russell, are holistic preventive efforts that promote social-emotional wellness, whereby kids develop important life skills. An effective prevention approach is:
1) Data-driven (evidence-based facts stand up best to scrutiny);
2) Community-based (looking at all elements – family, school, cohort, teams, other activities);
3) Ongoing and strategic (informed by science);
4) Person centered (keyed to the ages and culture of the kids involved).
Social-emotional wellness, firmly established, is key, but, Russell noted, it is “hard to gauge.” Social-emotional wellness comprises the “softer skills” (good decision making, impulse control, emotional regulation, ability to weigh consequences, i.e., the “frontal lobe” stuff). Effective prevention programs use skills-based learning to encourage and promote healthy development. However, working counter to the steady, successful development of social-emotional wellness, are a few risk factors. A big one is the adolescent brain itself, which, Russell explained, not only doesn’t fully develop until age 25-26, but more critically, develops “back to front,” allowing the primitive systems (think, “old brain”) to mature first, and the all-important executive function system (frontal lobe) to develop last.
This late development of executive function explains those puzzling times when parents, seeing a bad decision their child has made, may ask incredulously, “WHAT were you thinking??” The answer is, they weren’t. The ability to think ahead, weigh consequences and synthesize data to make good decisions is still a work in progress in the teen years. Similarly, when a parent asks a teen or tween to describe her feelings, the blank stare the parent gets in response is not always surliness, it is often simply evidence of a brain not yet able to find the abstract words to describe the feelings.
Still, social-emotional wellness skills are crucial to avoiding addiction (which is, by the way, an adolescent onset illness – with 90% of cases beginning in the teen years) and therefore must be taught if we are to help protect teens. Adolescents who rate high on stress (and many in our community do) are three times more likely to experiment with marijuana and two times more likely to do so with alcohol.
Further, and with relevance to our community, research has revealed a surprisingly big risk factor: affluent culture. This doesn’t mean an individual family of means is necessarily at huge risk, but it does mean the CULTURE of affluence surrounding our teens increases addiction risks. Per the research of Suniya Luthar, negatives associated with affluent culture include:
1) higher rate of substance abuse than the national norm
2) higher rate of depression/anxiety
3) immense pressure for achievement
5) focus on external markers of success
6) priority on extrinsic, as opposed to intrinsic, value
7) easy access and exposure to substances (with money for purchase power).
Kids internalize messages about success, noting the high value affluent culture places on external markers, vs. acknowledgment of the child’s own inherent worth. A sense of one’s inherent worth increases confidence; a lack of it has the opposite effect.
With this background in mind, what are the nuts and bolts of vaping and JUULing?
Facts: e-cigarettes (ENDS, or “electronic nicotine delivery systems”) come in many forms, from pipes to plug-ins, and deliver differently according to their mechanisms. (Kids know the terrain well. They’ve even learned to take ENDS apart and tweak the mechanics in order to deliver drugs other than nicotine, or to increase nicotine’s effect.)
Nicotine is delivered via vaporized liquids, which come in over 7,000 flavors, often cannily named and packaged to suggest a fantasy candy-land, with the young user in mind. (No self-respecting adult is likely to be seduced by “Cake Berry Blaster,” “Tutti Frutti,” “Cotton Candy” or “Avalanche Apple Slam.”) These “vape sauce” flavors represent an obviously cynical marketing approach on the part of companies who clearly target young people, while adhering to the fiction that the product is meant only for the legal user (age 18 and over). Virtually all marketers know that the best time to grab new customers is in the teen (or even tween) years, said Russell. And this is a $3.7 billion market, she added, projected to rise to $5.1 billion by end of 2018, with three major tobacco companies involved. Teens are blissfully ignorant of risk, and believe “vape sauce” is harmless, said Russell, and though some products are labelled “nicotine-free,” the industry is not well regulated. The flavoring agents, notably, are unregulated, and though their ingredients may have been approved for ingesting, they haven’t been approved for inhalation into the lungs. Some trace compounds in the flavored “vape sauce” are carcinogenic, if inhaled.
Regulation holds no appeal for companies seeing profits from three million middle- and high-school students who use their products annually, and some recent research on vaping is funded by the very companies who profit from it. However, counter to early claims, there is data to show that vaping has NOT proven an easy path to quitting traditional cigarettes; rather, vaping may prompt teens to START smoking traditional cigarettes, within 6 months of e-cigarette use. Further, the kids who vape and JUUL are not seduced solely by nicotine producers. Vaping has a huge presence on social media, with YouTube videos demonstrating “vape tricks” under titles like “simple vape tricks everyone should know.” Hiding a JUUL in the string of a hoodie (readily accessible to pop in the mouth for a quick hit) or creating weird vapor “trails” are shown as easy, fun ways to rebel. Ducking under a desk for a quick hit in class, when the teacher turns to the board, works too.
JUUL, with its small size and resemblance to a pen or USB stick is the most popular delivery system with many kids. It is easy to hide (adults don’t recognize it) and is convenient – it comes with pre-filled pods, carrying a liquid nicotine of choice. It’s easily found at any bodega or online. Kids “hack” the system by taking it apart to access the heating coil and pour liquid on it directly to intensify the hit (“dripping”), or to swap out nicotine for THC, in the pod. It’s ubiquitous – and its popularity is going nowhere but up.
So, is this really safe? Russell noted side effects: impulsivity, attention deficits, gum disease, lung cell damage, bronchitis, wheezing, elevated blood pressure and “popcorn lung” (scarring). It’s time to “amass forces,” said Russell, which will take “all of us, working together” to intervene – parents, schools, community. Early prevention works best, she said; Hallways currently goes into the schools to do its preventive work. Ask your kids what’s happening in their schools around this subject, she advised.
Russell stressed again that the heart of successful intervention is overall social-emotional wellness, combined with strong family relationships, with a focus on coping, decision making, stress management, building interpersonal skills and empathy. What should parents know about what THEY can do to help?
1) STRONG ADULT RELATIONSHIPS are key. Do your part in strengthening yours with your child.
2) SKILL REINFORCEMENT is crucial. It must come from home, school, community. Russell likened it to teaching a toddler to walk – parents patiently assist them over and over until they can manage alone. Social-emotional skills, too, need to be WALKED THROUGH and PRACTICED, over and over.
3) REPETITION is key. You don’t tell your child once in his life to pick up his clothes and make his bed; you remind him, again and again. Social-emotional skills, too, take reminding over time to become habit. Tell your children over and over that you want them make good choices.
4) BE PROACTIVE: talk to your child EARLY, OFTEN and CONSISTENTLY. Russell noted that kids “value their relationships with their parents and want to know they can talk to you, even if they seemingly resist.”
5) USE TEACHABLE MOMENTS. Become adept at the “one-minute conversation,” described by Russell as quick, frequent, in-the-moment observations you can make to your teen. And for longer conversations, carve out the time needed to extend those teachable moments into a full discussion.
6) EMPATHIZE. It’s hard to be a teen! Remember? Recognize their lives are tough, often with social hurt.
7) DON’T CRITICIZE TEEN FRIENDS. Instead of saying “I don’t like so and so – she’s trouble,” say that you’re worried about her well-being. Express concern for the friend. If you convey concern, your child will know that if he screws up, you’ll worry about him rather than reject him.
8) SET BOUNDARIES. Be clear with your expectations. Say plainly, “I don’t want you vaping, I don’t want you smoking pot - I want you to be healthy and safe.”
9) MODEL what you want to see. If you come home and say, “What an awful day – I need a drink!” what are you telling your child? That if things are tough, go find a chemical? Wrong message!
10) ANTICIPATE SITUATIONS, TALK THROUGH THEM, AND ROLE PLAY. If you want your child to avoid risky situations, play through them and help her brainstorm ways to handle them safely, or extricate herself.
11) ENFORCE CONSEQUENCES for risky behaviors. Russell acknowledge this is a hard one, always. Yet, she said, kids who have no consequences are pitied by other kids. Kids with them, feel cared for.
Russell also noted warning signs for parents to heed. For nicotine use: evidence of pods or packaging in bedrooms or backpacks; little thumb-drive-looking things; unusual changes in online purchases; hiding/secrecy (sneaking out to vape/JUUL); anxiety, or restlessness. For THC: red eyes; dilated or constricted pupils; changes in sleep/eating/activity patterns; changes in dress or grooming; declining grades or decline in extracurricular participation.
Katherine Prudente, Hallways Program Manager, noted that a substance abuse problem develops over time, and she outlined the stages:
1) This is fun, and it feels good. (Your child still has some control).
2) I want to do it again. (Still more a “want” than a “need.”)
3) I had a terrible day and I need to get high. (Now it’s a need).
4) I feel bad if I don't use. (Now it’s a requirement to avoid withdrawal; fully developed dependence).
It is important, said Prudente, to intervene before there is a fully developed pattern of dependence. The Hallways intervention system (Hallways Indicated Prevention Program, or HIPP) follows a protocol of assessment (teasing out symptoms vs. normal teen behavior, identifying other factors that may be at play, such as depression or anxiety and determining what intervention is needed); short-term counseling (including learning healthy skills and practicing); and referrals (if indicated).
Prudente also provided a short list of intervention strategies that parents may use:
1) If you see something, say something.
2) Parents/caregivers must all be on the same page and the same team.
3) Trust the strength of your relationship.
4) Always lead with concern.
5) Use dialog, not reprimands.
6) Discuss family history – if there is addiction, share that information with your child.
7) Seek support.
Finally, she advised, find your OWN words for talking points. Express yourself as yourself, in ways that will help your child hear you. Be clear. Most important, say where you stand, without ambiguity.
The speakers then took a few audience questions:
Q: What is the nicotine high? A: The “hit” may make users a little dizzy, but they don’t know they’re hooked until they cannot get more of it. It is subtle.
Q: Does vapor trigger smoke alarms? A: No
Q: Are e-cigs as toxic as traditional ones? A: No, but they aren’t safe. It’s like the difference between 60 mph with no seatbelt or 90 mph with no seatbelt. Neither is safe, but it’s a matter of degree.
Q: Where do kids get THC? A: Online, in the form of oil or “dabs.”
All parents want the same things – to see their children grow up healthy, and to keep them safe. But no parent, alone, can face a crisis of the expanding magnitude of the JUUL/vape crisis. Take heart, take heed of Hallways’ valuable tips, and take comfort in numbers – we are a community. Stay involved, informed and connected, and together our community will find the strength to support our children - through love, attention and ALWAYS, through consistent communication.
FREEDOM INSTITUTE, a non-profit organization, was founded in 1976 as one of the country’s first intervention programs. For more information about Freedom Institute, its services and the Hallways Program in New York City middle and upper schools, go to www.freedominstitute.org or www.hallways.org.
Date: April 11, 2018
Time: 7:00 pm - 8:30 pm
Collegiate School Auditorium
301 Freedom Place South New York, NY Map and Directions